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Managing Communications

Chapter 1 - Overview of Banyan Communications


How Banyan networks use the client-service model
How workstations communicate with Banyan servers
How Banyan workstations communicate with each other
How Banyan servers communicate with each other
How Banyan workstations and servers communicate with host computers
Administrator's tasks

How Banyan Networks Use the Client-Service Model

Base services

Preconfigured services that run automatically for all users after a server is booted.
Services that must be created by administrators before they can be integrated into the network.

Services running on the server
Client software running on the workstations connected to the server

Figure 1-1. Client Service Model

Note: Users can load client programs and services on their local hard drive. However, as a rule, the client-service relationship is based on the model described in this section.

Figure 1-2. Client-Service Data Exchange

How Workstations Communicate with Servers

The Banyan Networking Software

Figure 1-3. Workstation-Server Communications

How DOS, OS/2, Windows NT, and Windows 95 Workstations Communicate with Each Other


Netbios, Named Pipe, and Mailslots

How Macintosh Workstations Communicate

Let a Banyan server perform AppleTalk routing functions
Allow the AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) service and Banyan print service to communicate with AppleTalk devices such as Macintosh computers and LaserWriter printers

1. The Banyan networking software attaches its own VINES Internet Protocol (IP) headers to AppleTalk packets.

2. Banyan servers read the headers and pass the packets through.

3. When the packets reach the target AppleTalk networks, the VINES IP headers are stripped off so that the AppleTalk packets can reach their destinations.

Figure 1-4. Tunneling AppleTalk Packets

How Banyan Servers Communicate with Each Other

Figure 1-5. A Banyan Multi-LAN Network


Source-level Routing

Figure 1-6. Packet Broadcasts on a Token-Ring Network

Workstations on Token-Ring LANs without a Banyan server must have SLR enabled to communicate through bridges.
If a Banyan server or workstation with SLR enabled is attached to a bridge connected to other rings, all servers on those other rings must also have SLR enabled to accept and respond to SLR packets.
Workstations on Token-Ring LANs with a Banyan server can route traffic through the server without having SLR enabled. This ability increases the efficiency of the network.
Workstations on Token-Ring LANs that use the NEWREV program to upgrade from any server across a bridge must have SLR enabled.
SLR across remote bridges is supported only on servers running VINES 5.50 or greater.

From a DOS or OS/2 client, run PCCONFIG.
From a Windows NT client, click the Setup icon in the VINES group.
From a Windows 95 client

- Select the Control Panel, then select the Network Icon.

- Highlight the Banyan VINES protocol for Windows 95 that is associated with your network adapter.

- Select Properties at the bottom of the screen.

- At the VINES Protocol for Windows 95 Properties screen, select the Configuration tab.

- Turn on the Source Level Routing option.

From the native VINES server, follow the instructions in Chapter 4. From a StreetTalk for Windows NT server, see the StreetTalk for Windows NT Installation Guide.

Server-to-Server Connections

By creating backbone LANs of servers, each of which has a particular Banyan Server-to-Server option installed
By tunneling VINES IP traffic through a foreign network such as a TCP/IP network

1. Install an ICA (Intelligent Communications Adapter) card in each Banyan server on the internet that will be participating in WAN communications.

2. Connect the cards to the appropriate serial lines.

3. Install the appropriate Server-to-Server WAN (SS/WAN) options.

Table 1-1. Where to Find More Information

For more information on Refer to 
Hardware requirements for serial communications  Chapter 3
ICA card configuration  Chapter 5
ICA card installation  ICA Installation Guide
Server-to-Server WAN options  Individual option guides

TCP/IP Networks

IP - Internet Protocol
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
UDP - User Datagram Protocol
ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol

Figure 1-7. TCP/IP Server-to-Server and Routing Options

Banyan supports synchronous internetwork communications using High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) protocols.

Synchronous server-to-server connections typically require the following hardware and software items:

Synchronous modems or a synchronous modem eliminator. Auto dialing is supported when using a Hayes® Smartmodem 2400TM or compatible modem.
The SS/WAN software option to support the HDLC server-to-server protocol on each server.

You can assign a line speed of up to 384 Kbps to the connection depending on the type of ICA card you installed. Both servers must use the same line speed.

Figure 1-8 shows two Banyan servers connected over a leased line. Each end of the leased line connects to a modem; an RS232 cable connects each modem to a Banyan server. The synchronous protocol requires synchronous modems or synchronous modem eliminators.

It does not matter which server is assigned as the Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment (DCE) or the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) as long as both servers are not assigned the same role. You may want to coordinate the assignments with administrators of other servers to which you plan to connect.

Figure 1-8. Synchronous (HDLC) Connection Using a Leased Line

A synchronous modem eliminator is used instead of two synchronous modems to provide the clocking signal necessary for transmission. To the servers, the synchronous modem eliminator is equivalent to a pair of synchronous modems. This configuration is used to connect servers to each other over short distances.

Using dedicated lines, the connection is available after you assign the line on both servers. If the cable is removed and then restored, the servers re-connect automatically, as long as the line assignments were not changed.

Asynchronous Server-to-Server Connections

The SS/WAN option also supports asynchronous server-to-server connections. These connections require the following hardware and software:

Two asynchronous modems, an asynchronous modem eliminator, or a null-modem cable
The SS/WAN software option to provide the asynchronous server-to-server protocol on each server

The modems at both servers must have compatible line speeds. The maximum line speed depends on the type of ICA card and the line on the card (see Table 5-1).

Figure 1-9 shows asynchronous server-to-server connections.

Figure 1-9. Two Banyan Servers Connected over a Switched Asynchronous Line

X.25 Server-to-Server Connections

Figure 1-10. Servers Connected Through a PDN


A synchronous modem and an ICA card for each server
The X.25 software options to support the X.25 Server-to-Server protocol on each server

SNA Server-to-Server Connections

1. VINES IP packets are sent from the server to the gateway where headers are appended.

2. On reaching the destination:

- The headers are stripped.

- The packet is routed in the Banyan network.

Figure 1-11. Banyan Servers Tunneling Traffic Through an SNA Network

IBM APPC/PC Version 1.11 (with PTF 1113 or higher)
IBM LAN Support Program Version 1.0 (if SS/SNA is connected to the SNA network by an IBM Token-Ring network)
IBM PC-DOSTM Version 3.3
IBM ACF/VTAM Version 3.2 (if SS/SNA is connected by ACF/NCP, Advanced Communications Function for the Network Control Program)
IBM ACF/VTAM Version 3.3 (if SS/SNA is connected directly to VM VTAMTM)
IBM ACF/NCP Version 4.3 (if SS/SNA is connected to an IBM 3725 Communications Controller)
IBM ACF/NCP Version 5.2 (if SS/SNA is connected to an IBM 3720 or IBM 3745 Communications Controller)
Synchronous modems for gateway workstations using SDLC protocols or Token-Ring boards for gateway workstations using Token-Ring protocols
The SS/SNA software option installed on servers and gateway workstations

ISDN BRI Server-to-Server Communications

B channels
D channels

Banyan Enterprise Client Server-to-Server Connections

How Workstations and Servers Communicate with Host Computers

3270/SNA Option

Figure 1-12. 3270/SNA Terminal Emulation

Asynchronous Terminal Emulation Option

TCP/IP Routing Option

Figure 1-13. Banyan TCP/IP Routing Option

Enterprise Client for TCP/IP

Figure 1-14. Typical Enterprise Client Configuration

Limited TCP/IP

VINES on StreetTalk for Windows NT

StreetTalk Naming services
Server Service
Security services
StreetTalk File
StreetTalk Print

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